|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 6-11
Effect of problem-solving therapy and relaxation on the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial
Saeideh Nasiri1, Masoumeh Kordi1, Morteza Modares Gharavi2, Masoud Kashani Lotfabadi3
1 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Psychiatry, Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Ibn-e-Sina Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||1-Feb-2018|
Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Postpartum depression with high prevalence and unpleasant complications needs to be identified and treated. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effect of problem-solving therapy (PST) and relaxation on the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed in health-care centers of Mashhad city, Iran, in women on the 3rd postpartum week. A total of 120 women were selected conveniently and randomly assigned to three groups (i.e., PST, relaxation, and control groups). The women completed Edinburgh Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Problem-solving skills were educated during six weekly sessions. Progressive muscle relaxation exercises and guided imagery were performed daily and once a week during 6 weeks, respectively. In the control group, women received usual postpartum care. All groups completed a daily checklist for recording depression symptoms. The three groups completed the BDI once again a week after the end of the intervention. Data analysis was conducted using Chi-square, paired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The mean difference of severity of depressive symptoms was significantly different between the three groups at 9 weeks after delivery (−14.86 ± 6.15 in PST group, −10.71 ± 5.23 in relaxation group, and −4.72 ± 4.51 in the control group, P < 0.001). The frequency of mild depression decreased from 57.1% to 3.8% in PST group, from 65.4% to 23.1% in the relaxation group, and from 60.7% to 33.3% in the control group. Conclusion: Both PST and relaxation can reduce the severity of depressive symptoms. However, the effects of PST were more than those of relaxation.
Keywords: Depressive symptoms, Postpartum depression, Problem-solving, Relaxation therapy
|How to cite this article:|
Nasiri S, Kordi M, Gharavi MM, Lotfabadi MK. Effect of problem-solving therapy and relaxation on the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Nurs Midwifery Stud 2018;7:6-11
|How to cite this URL:|
Nasiri S, Kordi M, Gharavi MM, Lotfabadi MK. Effect of problem-solving therapy and relaxation on the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Nurs Midwifery Stud [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 20];7:6-11. Available from: http://www.nmsjournal.com/text.asp?2018/7/1/6/224552
| Introduction|| |
Postpartum depression (PPD) is an episode of depression that occurs during the first 2 weeks after childbirth. The prevalence of PPD in the first delivery is about 10%–15%; however, this rate varies in different studies. The prevalence of PPD in Iran is almost 3 times of the developed countries.
Pharmacotherapy and psychological and psychosocial interventions have been proved as effective treatments for PPD. A meta-analysis concluded that different types of psychological interventions are equally effective for treating PPD.
Recently, a study reported a relationship between problem-solving ability and PPD and concluded that the problem-solving skills of postpartum depressed mothers should be improved. A meta-analysis has also concluded that problem-solving therapy (PST) is equally effective as alternative psychosocial therapies and medicinal treatments and more effective than no treatment and relaxation. However, some of the researchers have criticized the PST because of its time-consuming nature.,, Some also referred to the dissociable and solitary of postpartum depressed mothers and concluded that these patients should use simple approaches that can be applied at home.
Relaxation techniques have been shown as an effective adjunctive therapy for anxiety and depression and can be applied after a brief training., The positive effects of relaxation are attributed to the fact that it can decrease the arousal of autonomic and central nervous systems and increase in parasympathetic activity. Some of the evidence showed that two sessions of relaxation can increase the positive mood  and decrease the severity of PPD. However, Field et al. have reported that relaxation techniques were not as effective as massage therapy in postnatal depression.
Due to the conflicting results about the effects of relaxation therapy on PPD, and the fact that no previous study compared the effects of PST and relaxation on PPD, the question comes to mind that which method is more effective on the severity of PPD?
The present study aimed to compare the effect of PST and relaxation on the severity of PPD.
| Methods|| |
This nonblinded randomized controlled trial was conducted on depressed women (in the 3rd week postpartum) referred to eight health-care centers in Mashhad city from December 2009 to June 2010. To calculate the sample size, a pilot study was conducted on 30 women who were equally placed into three groups of 10. The mean pre- and post-difference of the PPD scores in the PST, relaxation, and control groups was 13.64 ± 7.52, 12.66 ± 5.53, and 8.00 ± 3.60, respectively. Then, using the following parameters (β = 0.10, α = 0.05, μ1 = 13.6 and μ2 = 8.0, S1 = 7.5, S2 = 3.6), 24 people were estimated to be needed in each group. However, we recruited 40 women in each group to cover the dropout. The people who participated in the pilot study were not included in the main study.
Before starting the sampling, a randomization plan was prepared using the SPSS software version 13 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). To this end, we entered the numbers 1–120 in the data sheet of the software. Then, using the “random numbers” option in the “compute” and “function group box” in the transform menu, the 120 supposed samples were randomly divided into three equal groups.
Inclusion criteria were age of 18–35 years, gestational age of 38–42 weeks, being literate, having a healthy neonate and single pregnancy, lack of a history of ≥2 abortion and drug abuse, no history of infertility or other comorbidities, nonsmoking, lack of a known mental disorder and dysthymia, not having a child with physical disability, mental retardation or a chronic disease, not being hospitalized for mental disorders during the last month, lack of any delivery, and postpartum complications or major stressful life events during the last 6 months. Exclusion criteria included a participant's decision to withdraw from the study, absence from more than one educational session, failure to follow the relaxation exercises for >3 times, manifestation of severe major depressive symptoms, using of narcotic and sedative drugs during the follow-up period, experiencing any major psychosocial crises such as death of close relatives, divorce, hospitalization, and getting a serious illness during the study.
The research instrument consisted of five parts, including a personal information sheet, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), three checklists for recording depressive symptoms, problem-solving sessions, and relaxation exercises.
The personal information form included three parts. The first two parts consisted of questions about demographic characteristics (i.e., age, education level, occupation, family income, parity, spouse support) and pregnancy and delivery information (wanted/unwanted pregnancy, route of delivery, neonate gender, satisfaction of neonate gender, nausea and vomiting, and anemia during pregnancy) that completed at the beginning of the study. The third part consists of four questions about infant's feeding, insomnia, access to aid in newborn care, and working outside the home, which was completed 9 weeks after delivery.
The EPDS is a 10-item questionnaire for assessing depressive symptoms and PPD screening. Each question is scored 0–3 summing up a total score of 0–30. The EPDS was adapted to Persian by Montazeri et al. In the present study, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the EPDS was 0.75. It has three cutoff scores of 10, 13, and 15 for screening, determining of symptoms, and diagnosis of PPD, respectively. The 84%–100% sensitivity and 82%–88% specificity were reported for the cutoff score of 10.
The BDI-II is a 21-item questionnaire that assesses the depressive symptoms severity. It was translated into Persian by Dobson and Mohammad Khani. The range of total score is 0–63, with a cutoff score of 14 for depression. In this study, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82.
The checklist of documentation of relaxation sessions contains items for recording the date and time of relaxation practice and the degree of perceived tension before and after the exercise based on a numerical scale, in which one stands for the lack of tension and complete relaxation and 10 stands for full tension. All mothers were trained to complete this checklist at home and at the beginning of each relaxation session.
The checklist of documentation of problem-solving sessions contains items for recording the date and time of problem-solving sessions, solutions proposed and implemented between the two sessions, and success for solutions. This checklist was completed by a researcher at the beginning of each session in the health-care center.
The depressive symptoms checklist includes questions on symptoms of depression (i.e., depressed mood, severe crying, hopelessness, emptiness, lack of pleasure in all or part of the daily activities, decreased or increased appetite, insomnia, severe fatigue or loss of energy, feeling worthless, guilt, difficulty in concentrating and making decisions, anxiety, thoughts of death or suicide, and infanticide). This checklist was completed daily by mother at home and assessed by the investigator at the beginning of each problem-solving session. The subject was referred to a psychiatrist if there were five or more symptoms for 2 weeks or more.
The women filled out the personal information form in 3 weeks after delivery. Of 290 women who completed EPDS, 121 ones had a score of 10 or above; then, the BDI-II was completed by them. After getting the score of 14–28 from BDI-II, a clinical psychologist interviewed the women to confirm depression. Women were randomly assigned to three groups of PST, relaxation, and control. Sessions were held by the researcher (midwife) in each center separately and individually.
During the study, loss of sample occurred for the following reasons: two women being employed, five women did not participate in the sessions, and 14 women did not participate after the third session due to travel, disease of newborn, too much housework, and lack of enough time to do relaxation exercises. The three groups completed BDI-II again 9 weeks after the delivery. Finally, statistical analysis was performed on 80 women [Figure 1].
Every patient in the PST group was trained about the five problem-solving skills (i.e., general orientation, problem definition and formulation, generation of alternatives, decision-making, and verification) during six 45–50 min weekly sessions. In these sessions, first, a list of depressive symptoms in the Beck questionnaire was prepared and then the problem was selected based on the priority and was characterized that when did this problem start and why it was caused. Afterward, multiple solutions were sought through brainstorming. At the beginning of the next session, the effectiveness of the suggested solutions was evaluated and the checklist of problem-solving sessions was completed by the researcher. Women also completed the depression symptoms checklist as daily at home.
The relaxation technique was taught to every patient in the relaxation group. At the first session, women were taught how to do relaxation exercises according to Jacobson's method  and exercises were implemented once by the researcher. In the second session, the mother was asked to perform exercises in the presence of the researcher. Her performance was evaluated and technical problems were rectified by the researcher. Then, the relaxation CDs were delivered to women, and they were asked to perform daily exercises at home and complete the relaxation exercise checklist before and after exercise. Moreover, the women referred to the health-care center for the implementation of guided imagery weekly (10–20 min). The women completed the depression symptoms checklist as daily at home.
The first researcher conducted all the PST and relaxation therapy sessions. A clinical psychologist taught PST (through six sessions of 2 h) and relaxation therapy (through four sessions) to the researcher and also supervised the researcher's performance on the first 10 patients in the PST group and the first five patients in the relaxation group. Afterward, the researcher conducted the remaining sessions.
The control group attended at the health-care centers once a week for 6 weeks and the researcher administrated usual care in the postpartum period according to the booklet of safe motherhood. These women also completed the depression symptoms checklist as daily at home. If they had questions about infant care and breastfeeding, the midwife answered them.
Research proposal was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (ethics approval code: 26/1/5/29). All participants were informed about the study aims without knowing the type of intervention and completed written, informed consent form. Moreover, all of them were assured that their information will remain confidential, and in case of unwillingness, they can withdraw from the study. The research team was careful to preserve the participants' rights according to the Helsinki Ethical Declaration. The trial is registered at Iranian Registry for Clinical Trials with registration code IRCT138810152956N2.
Data analysis was done by SPSS version 13. Demographic data were described by descriptive statistics, including indicators of central tendency, mean and standard deviation, and frequency distribution. Normality of the quantitative variables was examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and the distribution was normal for all variables. For determining homogeneity of the baseline data of the three groups, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for quantitative variables and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for nominal and categorical variables. ANOVA was also used to compare the mean difference of severity of depressive symptoms in 3rd and 9th postpartum weeks among the three groups and paired t-test was used to compare the mean depressive symptoms in each group before and after interventions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for studying the effect of interventions on the mean tension and the mean success of the implemented solutions in the PST during the multiple measurements. P < 0.05 was selected as the significance level for all tests.
| Results|| |
The mean age of women in the PST, relaxation, and control groups was 25.80 ± 4.23, 24.82 ± 4.15 and 25.75 ± 4.72 years, respectively (P = 0.680). Moreover, no significant difference was found in other personal characteristics of the three groups [Table 1].
|Table 1: Personal characteristics of the interventions and control groupsa|
Click here to view
At baseline, there was no significant difference between the study groups in depressive symptoms (P = 0.512), while the difference was significant after the intervention (P < 0.001) [Table 2]. While the Tukey test showed no significant difference between the PST and relaxation groups (P = 0.052), there was a significant difference between two intervention groups and the control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, a significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of the mean difference of the depressive symptoms severity (P < 0.001) [Table 2]. The Tukey test showed significant differences not only between the PST and relaxation groups (P = 0.018) but also between the two intervention groups and the control group (P < 0.001). As is evident in [Table 2], the PST group and control group, respectively, experienced the highest and the lowest changes in the severity of depressive symptoms.
|Table 2: Depressive symptoms severity in the intervention and control groups|
Click here to view
The frequency of mild depression decreased from 57.1% to 3.8% in PST group, from 65.4% to 23.1% in the relaxation group, and from 60.7% to 33.3% in the control group. Moreover, the frequency of moderate depression reached zero in the two intervention groups and decreased from 39.3% to 25.9% in the control group.
Repeated measures ANOVA showed that although the mean tension was gradually decreased during the four consecutive assessments (i.e., 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after delivery; based on the data retrieved from the relaxation documentation checklist); however, these changes were not statistically significant (P = 0.217) [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Comparison of the mean perceived tension in the relaxation group at the four consecutive assessments after delivery|
Click here to view
Repeated measures ANOVA also showed that although the mean success of the implemented solutions in the PST group was gradually increased during the six consecutive measurements; however, these changes were not statistically significant [Table 3].
|Table 3: The comparison of mean success for solutions offered in problem-solving group at weeks 3 to 8 after delivery|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The results of the present study showed that both PST and relaxation can reduce the severity of depressive symptoms. However, the effects of PST were more than those of relaxation. Several studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of relaxation therapy , and PST in the treatment of depression.,,, Mynors-Wallis also reported that PST was as effective as antidepressant medication in patients with major depression. Components of problem-solving teach individuals how to confront with problems and negative thoughts and how to administer new solutions to overcome their problems. Nonetheless, it seems that the severity of the depression might effect on the impact of PST. Therefore, although some patients with severe depressive disorder can successfully be treated with PST, it is more difficult to treat patients with poor concentration and lack of motivation.
The present study showed that although both interventions could decrease the frequency of mild and moderate depression, the frequency of mild and moderate depression has decreased in the control group too. It seems that communication with the health-care team and listening to professional advice, especially if accompanied with feelings of respect and acceptance by the professionals, can decrease the depressive symptoms.
The present study showed that both interventions were effective in reducing the depressive symptoms in women with PPD and the difference between the two interventions was not statistically significant. Although the mean decrease in depression was somewhat greater after PST than that of relaxation, PST needs further visits, more time, and more helps from the side of health professionals, while relaxation do not need repeated visits or special facilities, and after initial training, it can be implemented at home and at any time. Borkovec and Sides also conducted a review on the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and concluded that seven sessions of relaxation can rapidly reduce the tension, but its therapeutic effects lasted for at least 5 months.
This study had a short follow-up. Moreover, the participants' mental status when filling the questionnaire and their access to other sources of data during the study could not be controlled, and this might affect the generalizing of the results.
| Conclusions|| |
Both interventions were effective in reduction of depressive symptoms in women with PPD. The interventions used in the present study had no adverse effects and can be used in routine care of women with PPD as easy, inexpensive, and applicable methods. Because of usability of PST and relaxation in primary care, midwives are recommended to implement these methods in women at risk of PPD both pre- and post-partum. Although we did not assess the effect of a combination of PST and relaxation, this combination might be more effective; further, such a hypothesis need to be tested in the future studies.
We are thankful of all patients who participated in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was funded by the Vice-Chancellor of Research, Mashhad University of Medical Science.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. United States of America: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
Almond P. Postnatal depression: A global public health perspective. Perspect Public Health 2009;129:221-7.
Vesga-López O, Blanco C, Keyes K, Olfson M, Grant BF, Hasin DS, et al.
Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:805-15.
Moses-Kolko EL, Roth EK. Antepartum and postpartum depression: Healthy mom, healthy baby. J Am Med Womens Assoc (1972) 2004;59:181-91.
Cuijpers P, Brännmark JG, van Straten A. Psychological treatment of postpartum depression: A meta-analysis. J Clin Psychol 2008;64:103-18.
Danasabe M, Elias N. Relationship between postpartum depression and problem solving ability among postpartum women in Nigeria. IOSR JHSS 2016;21:81-9.
Malouff JM, Thorsteinsson EB, Schutte NS. The efficacy of problem solving therapy in reducing mental and physical health problems: A meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 2007;27:46-57.
Mynors-Wallis LM, Gath DH, Lloyd-Thomas AR, Tomlinson D. Randomised controlled trial comparing problem solving treatment with amitriptyline and placebo for major depression in primary care. BMJ 1995;310:441-5.
Gibson J, McKenzie-McHarg K, Shakespeare J, Price J, Gray R. A systematic review of studies validating the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale in antepartum and postpartum women. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;119:350-64.
Arean P, Hegel M, Vannoy S, Fan MY, Unuzter J. Effectiveness of problem-solving therapy for older, primary care patients with depression: Results from the IMPACT project. Gerontologist 2008;48:311-23.
Jorm AF, Christensen H, Griffiths KM, Rodgers B. Effectiveness of complementary and self-help treatments for depression. Med J Aust 2002;176 Suppl:S84-96.
Beck C, Driscoll J. Postpartum Mood and Anxiety Disorders: A Clinician's Guide. Toronto: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2006.
Kwekkeboom KL, Wanta B, Bumpus M. Individual difference variables and the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and analgesic imagery interventions on cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008;36:604-15.
Watanabe E, Fukuda S, Hara H, Maeda Y, Ohira H, Shirakawa T, et al.
Differences in relaxation by means of guided imagery in a healthy community sample. Altern Ther Health Med 2006;12:60-6.
Abd El-Aziz K, Mamdouh A. Effect of relaxation exercises on postpartum depression. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2016;9:9-17.
Field T, Grizzle N, Scafidi F, Schanberg S. Massage and relaxation therapies' effects on depressed adolescent mothers. Adolescence 1996;31:903-11.
Montazeri A, Torkan B, Omidvari S. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS): Translation and validation study of the Iranian version. BMC Psychiatry 2007;7:11.
Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Br J Psychiatry 1987;150:782-6.
Dobson K, Mohammad Khani P. Psychometric coordinates beck depression inventory-2 in patients with major depressive disorder in partial remission periods. J Rehabil 2007;29:82-8.
Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71.
Jorm AF, Morgan AJ, Hetrick SE. Relaxation for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;8:CD007142.
Lolak S, Connors GL, Sheridan MJ, Wise TN. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and depression in patients enrolled in an outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program. Psychother Psychosom 2008;77:119-25.
Ghaffari S, Ahmadi F, Nabavi M, Memarian R. Effect of progressive muscle relaxation on depression, anxiety and stress of patients with multiple sclerosis. Res Med 2008;32:45-53.
Hoseini Z, Azkhosh M, Younesi J. The effectiveness of problem solving therapy on coping skills in women with type 2 diabetes. Iran Rehabil J 2014;12:39-43.
Thornett AM, Mynors-Wallis LM. Credibility of problem-solving therapy and medication for the treatment of depression among primary care patients. Med Sci Monit 2002;8:CR193-6.
Lucassen PLBJ, Costa J, Hassink-Franke L, Mynors-Wallis L, van Weel-Baumgarten E. Problem solving treatment (PST) for emotional problems in primary care. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2014;3. Art. No.: CD005561.
Mynors-Wallis LM, Gath DH, Day A, Baker F. Randomised controlled trial of problem solving treatment, antidepressant medication, and combined treatment for major depression in primary care. BMJ 2000;320:26-30.
D'Zurilla T, Nezu A. Problem-Solving Therapy: A Positive Approach to Clinical Intervention. 3rd
ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2006.
Wright ME, McCrea H, Stringer M, Murphy-Black T. Personal control in pain relief during labour. J Adv Nurs 2000;32:1168-77.
Borkovec TD, Krogh Sides J. Critical procedural variables related to the physiological effects of progressive relaxation: A review. Behav Res Ther 1979;17:119-25.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]